iCloud Keychain Security

Apple has released an update to its iOS Security whitepaper. Rich Mogull makes a good summary of the whitepaper, and explains why he thinks Apple has provided a way to make it impossible for a third party to obtain your iCloud Keychain passwords.

Worth reading.


Configuring Pelican, Dropbox, and automatic blog publishing

In this post I will explain how I set up Pelican on a Linux (Ubuntu) server to mantain multiple blogs, using Dropbox for file synchronization, watcher to detect changes in the blog’s content and regenerate it , and Apache to serve the resulting files.

  • The blogs’s content will reside in a shared Dropbox folder. This is where posts are written in Markdown format (or .rst if you prefer).
  • Pelican template (themes) files will also reside in this Dropbox folder, so you can modifiy your blog’s theme if needed without logging into your web server.
  • Pelican will run on your webserver, not on your local machine. (Don’t need to call Pelican from your command line anymore.) This way, you can publish content from wherever you have access to your Dropbox account and a text editor. Pelican will only launch when there is new content to be published, thus minimizing your server’s load.
  • Each blog will have custom its own pelicanconf.py and publishconf.py files.
  • A simple bash script for each blog will call pelican with the appropiate configuration files, input and output directories.
  • watcher, a Python utility which uses the inotify interface, will monitor this shared folder for changes. (The difference between watcher and other similar utilities like incron is that watcher can detect changes in subdirectories, a trick incron cannot do directly.)

Install Pelican

(I assume you have virtualenv and virtualenvwrapper installed. If not, you can find information on how to do it here and here.)

Create a new virtual environment on your server.

$ mkvirtualenv pelican

Install Pelican in your virutalenv using pip:

(pelican) $ pip install pelican
(pelican) $ pip install markdown
(pelican) $ pip install typogrify

Install Dropbox CLI on your web server

For security reasons, it is better to create a new Dropbox account for your blogs and share a folder in that account with your main Dropbox account. This way you don’t have to sync your whole Dropbox folder to your web server.

Logout from your Dropbox account on your browser and create the new Dropbox account. Using Dropbox’s web interface, create a folder for your blogs (let’s call it blog). Share this folder with your main Dropbox account.

Install the Linux Dropbox command line client. Then run the Dropbox daemon from your Linux’s server command line.

(pelican) $ ~/.dropbox-dist/dropboxd

The first time you run the daemon, it will ask you to visit a link on your browser so that Dropbox links your web server to your new account:

This client is not linked to any account...
Please visit https://www.dropbox.com/cli_link?host_id=xxxxxxxxxxx

Copy the link and paste it on your browser. (You must be logged to Dropbox with your newly created account for this to work.) Once this is done, Dropbox will take care of syncing your shared folder on your server.

Configure Pelican

Create a new pelican blog using pelican-quickstart, as explained in the Pelican documentation. (I won’t cover how to configure Pelican here.)

(pelican) $ pelican-quickstart

Once finished, you will have a directory named pelican with the necessary files to run your blog.

Optional: download a bunch of Pelican themes from github to your blog’s directory in Dropbox. (We will assume that your themes reside in ~/Dropbox/blog/pelican-themes/.)

(pelican) $ git clone --recursive https://github.com/getpelican/pelican-themes ~/Dropbox/blog/pelican-themes

Copy the newly created pelicanconf.py and publishconf.py to create a custom version for your blog. (example.com for our purposes.)

(pelican) $ cp pelicanconf.py examplecom_conf.py
(pelican) $ cp publishconf.py publish_examplecom.py

Configure your Pelican blog as usual by modifying these new files.

We need to tell Pelican where to find your theme. Add your theme’s path to your examplecom_conf.py file.

# Tell pelican your theme is in your Dropbox folder:
THEME = '/home/user/Dropbox/blog/pelican-themes/pelican-elegant'

As generated by pelican-quickstart, publishconf.py will work as is if you run Pelican from your /home/user/pelican directory. But if you run Pelican from other directory, it will fail to import the pelicanconf.py settings because it won’t find the file in the Python path.

To fix this, change publish_examplecom.py so that pelican modules are imported correctly when watcher runs the pelican script. Also, change the from pelicanconf import * statement to reflect your configuration’s file name.

import os
import sys

# This is the directory where your pelican's
# configuration files reside
pelicanpath = '/home/user/pelican'

# Change this import to reflect your blog's configuration
# from pelicanconf import *
from examplecom_conf import *


Create a bash script in your /home/user/pelican directory that calls Pelican to regenerate the blog. Name it something like update_examplecom.sh. (Use which to determine where the pelican executable resides.)

(pelican) $ which pelican



Make the script executable:

(pelican) $ chmod +x update_examplecom.sh

To create additional blogs, there is no need to run pelican-quickstart again. Just create new copies of pelicanconf.py and publishconf.py, and an appropriate bash script.


The blog will be served as by Apache using virtual hosting.

Create the directory that will host your website. (I prefer to have my websites in my user’s home directory, instead of under /var/www.)

(pelican) $ sudo mkdir -p ~/example.com/www
(pelican) $ sudo mkdir -p ~/example.com/logs

Create the Apache’s virtual host configuration file for your blog in /etc/apache2/sites-available. (For this example, examplecom).

<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerAdmin     info@example.com
ServerName      example.com
ServerAlias     www.example.com
DocumentRoot    /home/user/example.com/www/
ErrorLog        /home/user/example.com/logs/error.log
CustomLog       /home/user/example.com/logs/access.log combined

<Directory />
Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
AllowOverride All
Order allow,deny
allow from all


Enable your new virtual domain:

(pelican) $ sudo a2ensite examplecom
(pelican) $ sudo service apache2 reload

Some testing

Take a moment to test your configuration. Create a sample post in ~/Dropbox/blog/example.com/content/posts using your favorite editor in your laptop (not directly on your server), and runupdate_examplecom.sh on your server. If everything goes right, you should be able to access your virtualhost at your domain.

Using watcher to regenerate the blog automatically

Watcher is a nifty utility written in Python that monitors a directory and its subdirectories for change using the inotify interface. It can be configured to execute a command when a change is detected, which is just what we need to regenerate our blog.

We will use a forked Watcher version that reads its configuration file from a Python-like .ini file instead of watcher’s original YAML file.

Install watcher’s dependencies. Get watcher from Github, unzip the archive and copy watcher.py and watcher.ini to /home/user/pelican.

# Install watcher dependencies
(pelican) $ pip install pyinotify
(pelican) $ wget https://github.com/splitbrain/Watcher/archive/master.zip
(pelican) $ unzip master.zip
(pelican) $ cp Watcher-master/watcher.* ~/pelican
(pelican) $ chmod +x ~/pelican/watcher.py

Next, create a new job for your blog in watcher.ini.


Start watcher:

(pelican) $ cd ~/pelican
(pelican) $ ./watcher -c watcher.ini start

Monitor watcher’s output to see if everything is working fine:

(pelican) $ tail -f /tmp/watcher.log

Create or modify another sample post on your blog. When you hit ‘save’ on your editor, it will take a few seconds for Dropbox to syncronize your post with your web server. watcher should notice the change and launch update_examplecom.sh. You should see something like this:

(pelican) $ tail -f /tmp/watcher.log
Done: Processed 15 articles and 1 pages in 1.21 seconds.

Configuring additional blogs

You can configure Pelican to maintain aditional blogs easily:

  • create new Pelican configuration files and a regeneration script for each blog.
  • add a virtual host for the domain.
  • add a new job to watcher’s .ini file and restart watcher.


Pelican is fast, even if it regenerates the whole blog every time. This setup enables you to blog from anywhere you can access your Dropbox account and a text editor. (In fact, most of this article was written using Editorial on my iPad.)

pelican dropbox apache watcher python blogging baked blogs static blogs